DescriptionSympathetic agonist, neurotransmitter and catecholamine

Cardiac, Vascular,

Respiratory & Systemic


Cardiac arrest, bradycardia and cardiogenic shock

Anaphylaxis, severe allergic reaction and refractory airway disease

Croup (an alternative preparation is racemic adrenaline)

Mechanism of ActionActivation of alpha-1 adrenoreceptors induces vasoconstriction leading to increases in systemic vascular resistance, blood pressure, cerebral and coronary blood flow. Activation of beta-1 adrenoreceptors induces increased heart rate and cardiac contractility leading to increase cardiac output.  Activation of beta-2 adrenoreceptors induces bronchodilation.


< 2 minutes

Peak Effects

2-5 minutes


5-10 minutes

ContraindicationsNone in its listed indications
Adverse EffectsHeart palpitations, anxiety, tremors, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, arrhythmias and increased myocardial oxygen demand
Precautions & Facts

Can be deactivated by alkaline solutions and IV doses should be reserved for cardiac arrest or refractory cases of respiratory distress, bradycardia or shock.

Caution required in pregnancy, tachycardias or geriatric patients.

Preparation1 mg/mL ampoules and 0.15, 0.3 or 0.5 mg auto-injectors (1:1,000) or 1 mg/10 mL mini-jets and 1 mg/10 mL ampoules (1:10,000)

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